Anti Depressants are a special group of psychotropic drugs that never and under no circumstances cause either drug dependence (this risk exists only when tranquilizers are misused ), nor the inhibition or any reduction in clarity of consciousness, memory, attention, or thought activity these negative effects are possible only with the use of neuroleptics ). The vast majority of psychoemotional disorders, which are addressed to a doctor-psychotherapist, are successfully treated with just one correctly selected antidepressant.The reason for the failure, as practice shows, is not the drug itself, but the mistakes made in its appointment.
Anti Depressants– medicines that can eliminate signs of depression, improve mood, reduce melancholy and apathy. First-generation antidepressants include monoamine oxidase inhibitors (nialamide) and tricyclic antidepressants (amitriptyline, imipramine, clomipramine, etc.), second and subsequent generations – maprotiline, fluoxetine, heptral, coaxil, etc. High toxicity and incompatibility of monoamine oxidase inhibitors with a number of others. medicines, as well as the need to adhere to a strict diet during treatment significantly limit their use. More often use tricyclic antidepressants.
The mechanism of their action is the blocking anti depressants of the reuptake of serotonin and norepinephrine in the brain tissues. Basic. therapeutic effect – antidepressant; sedative (some drugs – stimulating); holinoblocking. Indications for use are depressive conditions. Side effects are due to the influence of antidepressants on the center, the nervous system (eg, drowsiness and lethargy during the first days of treatment, impaired coordination of movements, worsening anxiety, anxiety), or their anticholinergic (atropine-like) properties – disorders of urination ; constipation due to intestinal atony; disorders of accommodation and visual impairment ; dryness of the mucous membranes of the mouth; tachycardia and arrhythmia.
Possible complications from the organs of hematopoiesis (leukopenia, thrombocytopenia, hemolytic anemia), allergic. reaction.
liver and kidney disease with a violation of their function; acute infections. diseases; atony of the bladder and prostate adenoma(risk of acute urinary retention); glaucoma (can provoke an attack); pregnancy.
Preparations of the second and subsequent generations, as a rule, differ anti depressants in the simplicity of the treatment regimen (eg, fluoxetine is prescribed once a day), rarely cause side effects (in particular, fluoxetine and coaxil lack cholinoblocking properties). Feature fluoxetine – the lack of sedative effect, the drug reduces appetite; coaxil has anxiolytic activity; Heptral has a hepatoprotective effect, i.e. has beneficial effects in liver diseases.
How does the anti depressant work?
Simply put, the effect of anti depressants is manifested by the fact that the brain exits from the stressful mode of functioning – anxiety is reduced, internal tension is removed, mood is improved, irritability and nervousness go away, sleep is normalized, the vegetative nervous system is stabilized – for example, palpitations, dizziness, headache, fluctuations in blood pressure, emotionally caused by disorders of the stomach, intestines, etc. This is achieved by restoring the proper work of the neurotransmitters of the brain – serotonin, noradr Nalin, dopamine, and other protein molecules, providing the anti depressants transmission of electrical impulses between neurons.This takes time, so the effect of modern antidepressants develops very gradually, manifesting itself not earlier than 3-5 weeks from the start of taking the drug.
The full final effect depends to a large extent on:
- 1) the correct drug choice,
- 2) the correct choice of dosage,
- 3) the correct duration of treatment;
- 4) correct cancellation. Violation of even one of the items can lead to ineffectiveness of the entire treatment, and such cases are widely discussed by patients who unreasonably consider the cause of failure the drug itself.
How correctly to take an antidepressant?
Treatment with antidepressants consists of two main stages:
- the main one , during which all symptoms of depression, anxious neurosis or autonomic dysfunction must pass (the use of an antidepressant does not at all mean that the patient’s problem is just or only depression);
- supporting (or control ), during which it is absolutely necessary to continue treatment in the absence of symptoms and the patient’s ideal state of health. And only under such conditions, supporting treatment makes sense, otherwise the choice of the drug and / or its dosage should be reviewed.
Thus, if the full effect is absent in the first stage anti depressants of treatment, then continuing it in the supportive regime is meaningless and not correct, since this can cause a decrease in the susceptibility of the organism to the action of the drug (resistance, tolerance) and its further ineffectiveness.
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